Summary (continued)

  • Capping occurred due to convergence aloft associated with the right rear quad of a mid-level jet and strong dry advection.

  • The capping appeared to be underdone by the models.

  • The capping resulted in a very shallow layer of potential instability.

  • Mid-level lapse rates were weak, and dry air entrainment was significant.

  • The warm sector was very narrow; storms may not have had enough time to deepen before they became decoupled from the boundary layer.

  • The stable boundary layer likely inhibited the low-level stretching necessary for tornadogenesis, especially north of the NY / Pa state line.

  • 0-1 km shear was large, but mid-level storm relative winds were unfavorably weak for tornadogenesis.

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