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Climate Science
Updated image
February 28, 2005

The Climate Science web page provides links to information on various modes of climate variability, such as current index observations and forecasts, composites of associated meteorological parameters, and FAQ. Reference material on these modes of climate variability are provided for deeper understanding of how climate impacts forecasting.

Climate Variability Modes    Other Climate Variability Information     Reference Material

Climate Variability Modes
     Following the entry is the organization name responsible for the link.
     CPC - Climate Prediction Center      NOAA PMEL - NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
       CDC- Climatic Data Center               NCDC - National Climatic Data Center

     El Nino/La Nina
          ENSO Diagnostic Discussion (CPC)
          El Nino Temperature & Precipitations patterns (CPC)
          La Nina Temperature & Precipitation  patterns (CPC)
          Neutral ENSO Temperature & Precipitation patterns (CPC)
          El Nino Regions (CPC)
          Forecast SST Anomalies (CPC)
          El Nino/La Nina FAQ (CPC)
          El Niņo theme page  (NOAA PMEL)
          La Niņa theme page (NOAA PMEL)
          EL Niņo/La Niņa FAQ  (NOAA PMEL)
          La Niņa (NOAA)
          El Niņo (NOAA)
          El Niņo/La Niņa (NCDC)

     North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
          NAO Current observation and forecast (CDC) - [(35-45N, 70W-10W) - (55-70N, 70W-10W)]
          NAO Positive phase composite (CDC)
          NAO positive/negative phase diagrams (CPC)

     Pacific North American Pattern (PNA)
          PNA Current observation and forecast (CDC) -  [(15-25N, 180-140W) - (40-50N,
          180-140W) + (45-60N, 125W-105W) - (25-35N, 90W-70W)]
          PNA Positive phase composite (CDC)
          PNA description (CPC)

     Pacific Decadal Oscillation
          PDO - NASA

     Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)
          MJO Tutorial (CPC)

     Arctic Oscillation (AO)
          AO information (CPC)
          AO Composites (CPC)
          MRF AO Forecasts (CPC)
          Ensemble mean AO Forecasts (CPC)

Other Climate Variability Information    

     Climate Indices (CDC)    

     Linear Correlations in Atmospheric Seasonal/Monthly Averages (CDC) from the NCEP reanalysis with
     specified teleconnection and ocean index time-series. Correlations are generally available from Jan
    1948 to Dec 2002
     US Climate Divisions (CDC) - data plotting options

     ENSO Climate Comparison (CDC)    
     Risk of Seasonal Climate Extremes in the US Related to ENSO (CDC)

     Global Warming
          Global Warming FAQ - NCDC
          Global Warming - EPA
          Greenhouse Warming - NOAA
          Global Warming vs. Greenhouse Warming - NOAA

          Drought Monitor - CPC
          Drought Information Center - NOAA
          National Water & Climate Center - USDA NRCS

         Joint Agricultural Weather Facility - USDA & NOAA

        new imageArctic Change - NOAA - Providing information on the present state of Arctic ecosystems and climate in
          historical context.

     Other Links
     Global Extremes - NCDC

          Climate Information Project - NOAA-OGP & USAID-OFDA - Summarizes climate-weather impacts
          reported in the media linked to other databases.

          NCDC Data

          Locating Climate Data - CDC

     new imageWorld Meteorological Organization World Climate News - A bi-annual (January and June) climate related
         publication published by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) called the World Climate News (WCN).
         The WCN is a usually no more than 10-12 pages long and typically includes brief articles in a number of topic
         areas including:
               - significant climatic events that take place around the world;
               - the activities of WMO and other organizations concerning climate;
               - climate and environmental conventions between countries or organizations;
               - reports/information on world wide climate conferences and related phenomena (e.g. El Niņo, global warming)
               - the latest research on climate change.


Reference Material

     El Nino/La Nina

     Bergman, J. W., H. Hendon, K. Weickmann, 2001: Intraseasonal air-sea interactions at the onset of El
     Nino, J. Climate, 14, 1702-1719.     Abstract

     Bergman, J., H. Hendon, and K. Weickman, cited 2004:  The influence of intraseasonal variations of
     tropical convection on sea surface temperatures at the onset of the 1997-98 El Niņo, Climate
     Diagnostic Center. [Available on-line from the Climate Diagnostic Center at:]

     Hanley, D., M. Bourassa, J. O'Brien, S. Smith, and E. Spade, 2003: A Quantitative Evaluation of ENSO
     Indices, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16, 1249-1258.

     Patten, J., S. Smith, and J. O'Brien, 2003: Impacts of ENSO on Snowfall Frequencies in the United
     States, Wea. Forecasting, 18, 965-980.

     Smith, C. A. and P. Sardeshmukh, 2000: The Effect of ENSO on the Intrasesaonal Variance of Surface
     Temperature in Winter, International J. of Climatology, 20, 1543-1557.

     Smith, C. and  Prashant Sardeshmukh, cited 2004:   How ENSO can affect temperature fluctuations
     within a season over North America, Climate Diagnostic Center. [Available on-line from the Climate
     Diagnostic Center at:]

     North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

     Ostermeier, G. and J. Wallace, 2003: Trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation-Northern Hemisphere
     Annular Mode during the Twentieth Century, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16, 336-341.

     Pacific North American Pattern (PNA)

     Coleman, J. and J. Rogers, 2003: Ohio River Valley Winter Moisture Conditions Associated with the
     Pacific-North American Teleconnection Pattern, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16, 969-981.

     Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)

     Bibliography on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (COAPS)

     Sperber, K. R., 2003: Propagation and the Vertical Structure of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, Mon.
     Wea. Rev.
, 131, 3018-3037.

     Artic Oscillation (AO)

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