Winter's Last Prank: April 4, 2013 Wet Snow

NWS office snowfall

For many in our area, this winter had already gone on long enough with a late season March snow event and well below normal temperatures for almost all of March. Surely April would at last bring the start to Spring! "Not so fast" said Mother Nature, creating yet another storm system that was forecast for days in advance to have the ideal track for a snowstorm (just inland up the Carolina Coasts), at least ideal during the heart of the winter season! However, most indicators even days out pointed to at best a very high elevation wintry mix, with temperatures near the surface simply being too warm for snow, as a surface high to the north was expected to retreat eastward too quickly to keep any cold dry air around long enough. As this apparent mainly cold rain event drew closer in time, there remained no strong indicators that much in the way of frozen precipitation would make it to the ground even in the mountains, certainly not enough to accumulate. This combined with a time of arrival that put in in the middle of maximum daytime heating with the strengthening April sun angle, that seemed to make it even harder for much in the way of frozen precipitation to make it to the ground and stick. Still, some sleet was included in the forecast at the onset for many mountain locations.

Well, two things happened which very few forecast models or human forecasters thought would be likely. 1) The surface high with cold dry air was stubborn to shift east, and maintained a hold on much of the region during the day, Thursday April 4th, as the precipitation approached. 2) Perhaps most significantly, upward vertical motion resulting in fairly intense bands of precipitation was stronger than expected, and snow crystals that formed in the upper levels were able to overcome not only a layer of warmer air trying to nose up from the south, but also the daytime surface layer of air that otherwise would have been much more successful at melting frozen precipitation from aloft. These high rates of precipitation were able to keep the air refrigerated faster than the warming effects from southerly advection and April solar insolation at the surface. While a few models hinted that this would be possible, forecasters at NWS offices up and down the Appalachians as well as in National Centers felt it would take too much lift to overcome the warming processes, partly due to being so late in the season, and felt more confident in those majority of warmer solutions being offered by numerical guidance. Obviously, the minority won in this case, much like the Cinderella teams in the NCAA tournament, and since this clearly has not been a typical winter, maybe we shouldn't all be so surprised!

As a result, while many areas in the mountains and foothills experienced a quick burst of snow (mixed with sleet in most places), and thus picked up an inch or two of the snow/sleet mix, the heaviest bands of snow set up right over parts of the New River Valley. This brought very heavy wet snow for a couple of hours, just enough time to result in a zone of 5-7" for a number of locations, and allow accumulation on the roads due to the very high snowfall rates. This came just as schools and businesses were letting out late in the afternoon too.

Climate records indicate that the 1 inch of snowfall at Roanoke, measured near the airport, was the 7th snowiest day on record. Records for Roanoke began in 1912. For Blacksburg, the 5.4 inches measured ranks 3rd all time for a daily snowfall. Records for Blacksburg go back to 1952. Below are the top 10 snowiest days for Roanoke and Blacksburg, respectively. For the period of record for each site, there have 7 occurrences at Roanoke of 1" or greater snowfall, and a total of 10 for Blacksburg.

Roanoke  Extremes
Highest Snowfall
APR 1 - APR 30      Period of Record 1912 - 2013

    INDIVIDUAL DAYS           
    inches    date           
 1.  4.2   4-06-1971      
 2.  4.0   4-03-1987        
 3.  3.1   4-07-1971       
 4.  2.3   4-04-1987         
 5.  1.9   4-04-1992          
 6.  1.4   4-08-1982         
 7.  1.0   4-04-2013       
 8.  0.7   4-13-1959       
 9.  0.6   4-13-1957      
10.  0.6   4-07-1956          

Blacksburg  Extremes
Highest Snowfall
APR 1 - APR 30      Period of Record 1952 - 2013

    INDIVIDUAL DAYS           
    inches    date            
 1. 10.0   4-07-1971         
 2.  6.0   4-27-1978          
 3.  5.4   4-04-2013           
 4.  5.0   4-04-1987         
 5.  4.0   4-05-1992          
 6.  3.0   4-12-1988         
 7.  1.0   4-06-1993          
 8.  1.0   4-04-1992          
 9.  1.0   4-07-1990         
10.  1.0   4-19-1983         




 

A final snowfall map (or snow/sleet in many places) is shown near the bottom of this page.

The surface analysis map from midday on Thursday April 4 shows as the precipitation was moving in, much of which was starting as sleet in the higher elevations of NW North Carolina as expected, the high pressure remained strong, with very cold (for April) and dry air over the Mid Atlantic region. This allowed plenty of evaporation cooling to take place as the precipitation moved into it, working to help counter balance the warming that was trying to occur from other mechanisms already mentioned.

Radar and surface analysis at 11am, The high pressure cented along the Mid-Atlantic Coast was unusually
Figure 1. Radar and surface analysis at 11am, The high pressure centered along the Mid-Atlantic Coast
was unusually strong and was slow to shift east.

Output from an ensemble of several model solutions combined from overnight the night before showed that the most likely precipitation type was expected to be rain (green), with only very small pockets of snow (blue) at the higher elevations during the afternoon Thursday. The dotted red line labeled "32" is an indicator that only one of the many possible solutions kept it cold enough at the surface for snow in the Appalachian region.


Figure 2. Most likely precipitation type from the "SREF" ensemble model output.

 

The observed thermal profile from the evening of the event, launched by balloon from the NWS office in Blacksburg, indeed showed that temperatures were below freezing all the way up in the atmosphere, something only a couple of the various models suggested would happen.

Thermodynamic sounding profile from Blacksburg evening upper air observation. Red line (temperature change with height) and green line(dew point temperature change with height) show saturation through the lower half of the atmosphere and both remain just below freezing (to the left of dashed blue 0 deg C line), consistent with snow still occuring in Blacksburg.
Figure 3. Thermodynamic sounding profile from Blacksburg evening upper air observation. Red line (temperature change with height) and green line(dew point temperature change with height) show saturation through the lower half of the atmosphere and both remain just below freezing (to the left of dashed blue 0 deg C line), consistent with snow still occurring in Blacksburg.

The precipitation did change to sleet then rain or freezing rain right after the time of this observation as the rates finally slowed down, allowing some subtle warming to finally take place (surface temperatures at the NWS office remained just below freezing into the evening and in many parts of town they were just above freezing). Forecast errors of just one degree can make the difference between wintry precipitation types, and in this case it was certainly very close. One degree warmer somewhere higher up in the profile and we would have had mostly sleet. A couple of degrees warmer at the surface and we would have had primarily a cold rain. Nevertheless, since there were some signs in some forecast and observed data that this event had the potential of being more snow than rain for at least some of it's duration, even if most of the signs still pointed toward cold rain, forecasters will review as much of the data as possible to determine what was the most important evidence that would lean us toward thinking snow instead of rain the next time we get a late season but potent storm system. In addition, even if we believe in a similar scenario that the most likely outcome is cold rain, can we provide forecast products in the future that would convey the degree of uncertainty and a probability (even if small) of a threat for a higher impact event (such as accumulating snow), and can we improve on our forecast production methodology to provide more rapid updates during rapidly changing conditions. Those are things we will continue to explore as we move forward.

Very dry air in place at the onset of precipitation was one of the reasons why the low levels of the atmosphere sufficiently cooled to produce snow and sleet. The wet-bulb temperature is a measure of this phenomenon.

Thermodynamic sounding profile from Blacksburg evening upper air observation. Red line (temperature change with height) and green line(dew point temperature change with height) show saturation through the lower half of the atmosphere and both remain just below freezing (to the left of dashed blue 0 deg C line), consistent with snow still occuring in Blacksburg.

Figure 4. Wet-bulb temperatures at 11am Thursday morning. Readings colder than 32F are depicted in the region that observed the heaviest snowfall.

The final snowfall accumulation map for the counties covered by the Blacksburg NWS office is shown below, as well as the table of reports below that.

Snow map

 

NOUS41 KRNK 051534
PNSRNK
VAZ007-010-011-014-017-018-022-023-033>035-044>046-058-059-
WVZ042>044-060334-

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
SPOTTER REPORTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BLACKSBURG VA
1134 AM EDT FRI APR 05 2013

THE FOLLOWING ARE UNOFFICIAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING THE PAST 24
HOURS FOR THE STORM THAT AFFECTED OUR REGION. APPRECIATION IS
EXTENDED TO THOSE WHO PROVIDED REPORTS. THIS SUMMARY IS ALSO
AVAILABLE ON OUR HOME PAGE AT WEATHER.GOV/BLACKSBURG.

********************STORM TOTAL SNOWFALL********************

LOCATION          STORM TOTAL     TIME/DATE   COMMENTS                   
                     SNOWFALL           OF 
                     /INCHES/   MEASUREMENT

NORTH CAROLINA

...ALLEGHANY COUNTY...
   TWIN OAKS              3.0   538 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   4 SSW SPARTA           3.0   636 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   3 ENE GLADE VALLEY     1.8   800 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   GLADE VALLEY           1.8   616 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...ASHE COUNTY...
   3 ESE WEST JEFFERSON   2.0   629 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   6 NW LANSING           1.5   830 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   FLEETWOOD              1.0   521 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   3 SW LAUREL SPRINGS    1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   3 SW CRESTON           1.0   800 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   GLENDALE SPRINGS       0.5   545 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...ROCKINGHAM COUNTY...
   REIDSVILLE             0.5   739 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...SURRY COUNTY...
   6 W MOUNT AIRY         2.5   200 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   4 W MOUNT AIRY         1.5   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   LADONIA                1.1   448 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   2 W MOUNT AIRY         0.2   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

...WATAUGA COUNTY...
   4 NE BLOWING ROCK      0.6   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   5 E BOONE              0.5   730 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   2 NE BLOWING ROCK      0.3   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   SUGAR GROVE            0.3   443 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...WILKES COUNTY...
   NORTH WILKESBORO       0.5   542 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   4 WSW WILKESBORO       0.1   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

VIRGINIA

...ALLEGHANY COUNTY...
   4 E COVINGTON          2.0   800 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   JORDAN MINES           2.0   912 PM  4/04  LAW ENFORCEMENT         
   4 E COVINGTON CITY     2.0  1100 PM  4/04  COCORAHS                
   CLIFTON FORGE          1.5   914 PM  4/04  LAW ENFORCEMENT         

...AMHERST COUNTY...
   2 E ALTO               2.5   900 PM  4/04  COUNTY OFFICIAL         
   2 SE FORKS OF BUFFAL   0.2  1000 PM  4/04  OGDENS GROCERY STORE    

...BATH COUNTY...
   HOT SPRINGS            3.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   WARM SPRINGS           1.0   655 PM  4/04  911 CALL CENTER         

...BEDFORD COUNTY...
   HUDDLESTON             2.5   549 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   2 E STEWARTSVILLE      2.0   900 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   4 SW HUDDLESTON        2.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   HARDY                  1.5   542 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   MONETA                 1.5   900 PM  4/04  POST OFFICE             
   MONTVALE               1.0   900 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   4 ENE HUDDLESTON       1.0   900 PM  4/04  SOME SLEET MIXED IN     
   3 WNW BIG ISLAND       1.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   4 NW BEDFORD CITY      1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   4 NE PEAKS OF OTTER    0.7   900 PM  4/04  SNOW AND SLEET MIX      
   1 NNW SEDALIA          0.5   900 PM  4/04  SOME SLEET MIXED IN     
   3 W BEDFORD            0.5   600 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                

...BLAND COUNTY...
   3 SSE SUITER           4.0   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   BASTIAN                3.0   800 PM  4/04  0.5 SLEET.              
   4 SSW CHAPEL           3.0   800 PM  4/04  1 INCH OF SLEET.        
   CERES                  3.0   800 PM  4/04  POST OFFICE             
   BLAND                  2.5   829 PM  4/04  911 CALL CENTER         
   ROCKY GAP              2.0   800 PM  4/04  POST OFFICE             

...BOTETOURT COUNTY...
   6 NW DALEVILLE         3.0   900 PM  4/04  SNOW MIXED WITH SLEET   
   3 NW FINCASTLE         3.0   900 PM  4/04  SNOW AND SLEET MIX.     
   EAGLE ROCK             2.0   753 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   4 W GALA               1.5   900 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   LAYMANTOWN             1.5   622 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   FINCASTLE              1.3   639 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   2 NNW FINCASTLE        1.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   BUCHANAN               0.5   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

...CAMPBELL COUNTY...
   1 S GLADYS             0.2   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   GLADYS                 0.2   546 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   6 SSW LYNCHBURG        0.2   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                

...CARROLL COUNTY...
   HEBRON                 3.5   708 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   6 N GALAX              3.5   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   HILLSVILLE             3.0   550 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...CITY OF COVINGTON...
   COVINGTON CITY         1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

...CITY OF GALAX...
   GALAX CITY             3.0   403 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   GALAX                  2.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

...CITY OF LEXINGTON...
   LEXINGTON              0.3   654 PM  4/04  911 CALL CENTER         

...CITY OF LYNCHBURG...
   LYNCHBURG              0.3   514 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   1 WSW LYNCHBURG CITY   0.1  1200 AM  4/05  BROADCAST MEDIA         

...CITY OF RADFORD...
   RADFORD                5.0   844 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...CITY OF ROANOKE...
   1 SW ROANOKE           2.8   708 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   2 S ROANOKE AIRPORT    1.0  1200 AM  4/05  BROADCAST MEDIA         
   ROANOKE                0.5   436 PM  4/04  WDBJ                    

...CITY OF SALEM...
   SALEM                  3.0   554 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...CRAIG COUNTY...
   1 W NEW CASTLE         5.5   845 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   SIMMONSVILLE           5.5   738 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   NEW CASTLE             3.0   655 PM  4/04  911 CALL CENTER         

...FLOYD COUNTY...
   COPPER HILL            6.0   703 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   1 WNW COPPER HILL      4.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   CHECK                  2.3   659 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   FLOYD                  2.0   558 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   INDIAN VALLEY          2.0   340 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   WILLIS                 1.8   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   ALUM RIDGE             1.0   449 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...FRANKLIN COUNTY...
   ALGOMA                 3.3   651 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   ROCKY MOUNT            3.0   556 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   4 W ROCKY MOUNT        3.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   1 SW SOUTHERN SMITH    2.3   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   CALLAWAY               2.0   552 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   6 S GOODVIEW           2.0   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   BURNT CHIMNEY          1.5   539 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   SNOW CREEK             1.5   745 PM  4/04  NWS EMPLOYEE            
   3 ENE CALLAWAY         1.0   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   5 S STEWARTSVILLE      1.0   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...GILES COUNTY...
   STAFFORDSVILLE         5.2   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   W PEARISBURG           5.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   NEWPORT                5.0   628 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   MAYBROOK               5.0   930 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   2 S KIMBALLTON         4.5  1045 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   PEARISBURG             4.5   738 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   NARROWS                4.0   658 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   EGGLESTON              3.5   646 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   RICH CREEK             3.5   700 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   3 SW EGGLESTON         1.8   517 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...GRAYSON COUNTY...
   FRIES                  4.0  1100 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   TROUT DALE             3.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   TROUTDALE              2.0   501 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   1 S INDEPENDENCE       1.5   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   2 E INDEPENDENCE       1.5   315 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   1 NE MOUTH OF WILSON   1.3   455 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   INDEPENDENCE           1.0   330 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   ELK CREEK              1.0   412 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        

...HENRY COUNTY...
   FIGSBORO               1.0   435 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...MONTGOMERY COUNTY...
   MC COY                 7.3   706 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   5 NNE BLACKSBURG       6.8   746 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   5 W BLACKSBURG         6.5   800 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   BLACKSBURG             6.5   543 PM  4/04  AIRPORT RD              
   3 WNW SHAWSVILLE       6.5   700 PM  4/04  FOREST SERVICE          
   4 WSW BLACKSBURG       6.3   830 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   2 ENE BLACKSBURG       5.5   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   ELLETT                 5.5   535 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   2 S BLACKSBURG         5.4   700 AM  4/05  NWS OFFICE              
   1 ESE CHRISTIANSBURG   5.2   800 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   CHRISTIANSBURG         5.0   554 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   N BLACKSBURG           5.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   4 WNW ELLISTON         4.7   600 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   2 SSW CHRISTIANSBURG   4.5   715 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   LAFAYETTE              4.2   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   MERRIMAC               4.0  1100 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   VICKER                 3.8   611 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   ELLISTON               2.3   501 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...PATRICK COUNTY...
   5 SW MEADOWS OF DAN    2.0   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   SW WOOLWINE            2.0   600 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   ROCKY KNOB RECREATIO   2.0   645 PM  4/04  PARK SERVICE            
   MEADOWS OF DAN         2.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   1 SSW WOOLWINE         2.0   615 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   STUART                 1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   10 NNE STUART          0.5   404 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...PULASKI COUNTY...
   1 NW NEW RIVER         6.8   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   NEW RIVER              6.8   809 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   FAIRLAWN               6.5   616 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   PULASKI                5.0   537 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   DUBLIN                 5.0   632 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   SNOWVILLE              3.5   548 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   DRAPER                 3.0   553 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

...ROANOKE COUNTY...
   CATAWBA                5.3   800 PM  4/04  SNOW AND SLEET MIX.     
   KINGS FOREST           4.0   701 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   2 SSE CAVE SPRING      3.0   550 PM  4/04  NEWSPAPER               
   CAVE SPRING            2.5   545 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   5 SW ROANOKE           2.4   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   6 SW ROANOKE           2.0   615 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   1 ENE GLENVAR          2.0   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   1 NNW HOLLINS          2.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   3 NNW BOONES MILL      1.8   800 PM  4/04  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...ROCKBRIDGE COUNTY...
   4 SW ROCKBRIDGE BATH   1.0   930 PM  4/04  A LITTLE SLEET MIXED IN 
   1 SE GLASGOW           0.7   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   GLASGOW                0.7   821 PM  4/04  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   GOSHEN                 0.5   654 PM  4/04  911 CALL CENTER         
   NATURAL BRIDGE         0.5   900 PM  4/04  SNOW AND SLEET MIX      
   FAIRFIELD              0.2  1000 PM  4/04  NO SNOW MIXED IN        

...SMYTH COUNTY...
   SALTVILLE              0.5   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   3 NE MARION            0.5   214 PM  4/04  RAIN AND SNOW MIX       

...TAZEWELL COUNTY...
   BURKES GARDEN          3.8   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          

...WYTHE COUNTY...
   WYTHEVILLE             6.0   652 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   FORT CHISWELL          4.0   433 PM  4/04  BROADCAST MEDIA         
   AUSTINVILLE            3.0   451 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   GRAHAMS FORGE          3.0   445 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   1 SE STONES MILL       3.0   456 PM  4/04  HALF INCH OF SLEET      
   MAX MEADOWS            2.0   329 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  

WEST VIRGINIA

...GREENBRIER COUNTY...
   1 NW ROLLING HILLS     3.0   833 PM  4/04  PUBLIC                  
   RENICK                 2.5   854 PM  4/04  EMERGENCY MNGR          
   WILLIAMSBURG           2.0   708 PM  4/04  BROADCAST MEDIA         
   GREENBRIER RIVER TRA   2.0   704 PM  4/04  BROADCAST MEDIA         
   LEWISBURG AIRPORT      2.0   838 PM  4/04  EMERGENCY MNGR          
   CALDWELL               2.0   839 PM  4/04  EMERGENCY MNGR          
   LEWISBURG              2.0   705 PM  4/04  MIXED WITH SLEET        
   4 SE RONCEVERTE        1.5   700 AM  4/05  COCORAHS                
   ALDERSON               1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   WHITE SULPHUR SPRING   1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   3 E MCROSS             1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   RAINELLE               0.1   854 PM  4/04  EMERGENCY MNGR          

...MERCER COUNTY...
   BLUEFIELD              3.0   630 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   PRINCETON              2.0   630 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   1 SW BLUEFIELD         1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER          
   4 WSW PRINCETON        0.9  1200 AM  4/05  TRAINED SPOTTER         

...MONROE COUNTY...
   UNION                  2.0   848 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   PETERSTOWN             2.0   843 PM  4/04  EMERGENCY MNGR          

...SUMMERS COUNTY...
   HIX                    3.0   621 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   JUMPING BRANCH         3.0   621 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   PENCE SPRINGS          2.5   730 AM  4/05  TRAINED SPOTTER         
   HINTON                 1.0   620 PM  4/04  DEPT OF HIGHWAYS        
   2 SSE HINTON           1.0   700 AM  4/05  CO-OP OBSERVER