Services Provided by the National Weather Service

Basic Services

Routine Fire Weather Planning Forecasts (FWF)

NWS Charleston, SC

NWS Columbia, SC

NWS Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

NWS Wilmington, NC

Background

Routine Fire Weather Planning Forecasts are issued twice per day, every day of the year, by 0700 LT in the morning, and preferably by 1500 LT in the afternoon (no later than 1600L). An updated FWF will be issued by 11 AM if the forecaster feels the forecast has become unrepresentative based on the criteria listed below. Customers should note that updates to the FWF will not be issued at any other time of the day. The FWF will be available from each NWS office's website. In the event of an internet outage, the customers may call the NWS offfices, and have the forecast faxed to them.

Suggested FWF Update Criteria

Standard Air Temperature: +/- 5 degrees F.

Relative Humidity: +/- 5%.

Wind Speed and Direction at 20 ft AGL: +/- 5 mph and/or 45 degrees.

Precipitation POP, duration and amount: same as for public zones. Note: duration guideline for NFDRS is +/- 2 hours.

Inversions: +/- 100 m or 328 ft.

Freezing Level: +/- 100 m or 328 ft.

Transports Winds: +/- 5 mph and/or 45 degrees.

Mixing Height: +/- 100 m or 328 ft.

Stability: Must be in correct category 90% of time.

Burn Category: One category of change.

Dispersion: One category of change.

Note: Forecasters should examine regional morning upper air soundings to assist with forecast update decisions.

Content

The format of the Fire Weather Forecast is specified in National Weather Service Directive 10-401. The forecast will start with a headline of Red Flag Warnings or Fire Weather Watches (or of meteorological trends), followed by a meteorological discussion. The forecast will then be broken down by zone groupings of counties expecting similar weather in the early forecast period (days one and two).

The morning forecast will include three periods; today, tonight, and tomorrow. The afternoon forecast will include four periods; tonight, tomorrow, tomorrow night, and the next day.

Fire Weather Forecast (FWF) Parameter Definitions

CLOUD COVER or CLOUD AMOUNT: Represents the average sky condition over the specified area during the specified period. For example, “Clear” or “Sunny” indicates cloud cover < 10%; “Mostly Clear” or “Mostly Sunny” are used when cloud cover is ≥10% and <30%; “Partly Cloudy” or “Partly Sunny” are used when cloud cover is ≥30% and <60%; “Mostly Cloudy” is used when cloud cover is ≥60% and <80%; and “Cloudy” is used when cloud cover is ≥80%.

CHANCE PRECIP: Represents the chance (rounded to the nearest 10%) of measurable (≥ 0.01 inches) precipitation over the specified area during the specified period. Note: Drizzle and snow flurries are not considered measurable precipitation and thus will not be given a probability.

PRECIP TYPE: Represents the predominant precipitation type over the specified area during the specified period. Note: The only exception is when showers and thunderstorms are expected, as only thunderstorms will be designated as the precipitation type.

MAX/MIN TEMP: Represents the expected maximum (during the daytime period) and minimum (during the nighttime period) temperatures over the specified area.

MAX/MIN RH: Represents the expected maximum (during the nighttime period) and minimum (during the daytime period) relative humidity (%) over the specified area.

WND20FT2MIN/EARLY and WND20FT2MIN/LATE : Represents the 2-minute average wind speed (MPH) and direction 20 feet above the ground or vegetative cover. Wind direction is the direction the wind blows from. “Early” refers to the morning hours (before noon) during daytime period and also the evening hours (before midnight) during nighttime periods. “Late” refers to the afternoon hours during the daytime period and the pre-dawn (after midnight) hours during the nighttime period. Wind gusts, which are rapid fluctuations in wind speed of usually less than 30 seconds in duration, are indicated if expected. The highest probable wind gust will be preceded by a “G” and will usually only be included if they are 10 MPH or greater than the sustained wind speed.

PRECIP AMOUNT: Represents the precipitation amount (hundredths of an inch) whenever the chance of precipitation is ≥20%.

PRECIP DURATION: Represents the duration of measurable precipitation (hours) when the chance of precipitation is ≥20%.

PRECIP BEGIN: Represents the begin time (to the nearest hour) of measurable precipitation when the chance of precipitation is ≥20%.

NOTE: Only used by WFO CAE, WFO CHS and WFO GSP.

PRECIP END: Represents the end time (to the nearest hour) of measurable precipitation when the chance of precipitation is ≥20%.

NOTE: Only used by WFO CAE, WFO CHS and WFO GSP.

LAL: Represents the Lightning Activity Level, as defined below.

1: No thunderstorms.
2: Cumulus clouds are common, but only a few reach towering cumulus stage. A single thunderstorm must be confirmed in the rating area. The clouds mostly produce virga, but light rain will occasionally reach the ground.
3: Cumulus clouds are common. Swelling and towering cumulus cover less than 2/10 of the sky. Thunderstorms are few, but two or three must occur in the observation area. Light to moderate rain will reach the ground and lightning is infrequent.
4: Swelling cumulus and towering cumulus cover 2/10-3/10 of the sky. Thunderstorms are scattered, but more than 3 must occur in the observation area. Moderate rain is commonly produced and lightning is frequent.
5: Towering cumulus and thunderstorms are numerous covering more than 3/10 of the sky and occasionally obscure it. Rain is moderate to heavy and lightning is frequent and intense.
6: Same as #3, but dry (little to no rain reaching the ground).

HAINES INDEX: Represents the Haines Index, which is used to describe the stability of the atmosphere, with values ranging from 2 to 6. In the South Carolina Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Foothills, "low elevation" is assumed for the calculation of the Haines Index. It utilizes the atmospheric temperature at 950 mb and 850 mb as well as taking into account the moisture levels (dew point depression) at 850 mb.  In the South Carolina mountains, the "mid level" Haines Index is calculated using the temperatures at 850 and 700 mb, and the dew point depression at 850 mb.

DSI: Represents the Davis Stability Index, which is the maximum surface temperature (in deg C) minus the 850 mb temperature (in deg C). If the difference is <10 deg C, it is considered a Category 1 (stable); between 10 deg C and 14 deg C, it is considered a Category 2 (conditionally unstable); between 15 deg C and 17 deg C, it is considered a Category 3 (unstable); and >17 deg C, it is considered a Category 4 (absolutely unstable). Note: DSI is only computed for the daytime period.

MIXING HGT: Represents the mixing height, or the height (in feet above the ground) to which vigorous vertical mixing takes place. The Miller-Holzworth (dry adiabatic) method is used for determining mixing heights. This method does not account for moisture in the atmosphere, and will at times lead to mixing heights lower than those observed.

DISPERSION: Represents the begin and end times of the low-level (usually surface-based) inversion as well as the category of dispersion during this period based on the surface wind speed. The dispersion category gives a general indication of the state of the atmosphere with respect to its ability to disperse smoke. The categories are as follows: Very Poor (VP) or Poor (PO): 0-4 MPH winds, Fair (FA): 5-7 MPH winds, Good (GD): 8-9 MPH winds, Excellent (EX): ≥10 MPH winds. It is assumed that at least fair mixing is occurring in the evening prior to the onset of the nighttime inversion.

NOTE: Only used by WFO CAE and WFO CHS.

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION INDEX (ADI): A numerical index developed by Lavdas that incorporates stability and mixing height to determine dispersion. Stability class is determined using solar angle, ceiling and wind. The categories are as follows:

Very Poor (ADI 1-6): very frequent at night; represents the majority of nights in many locations.

Poor (ADI 7-12): stagnant at day, but near or above average at night.

Generally Poor (ADI 13-20): stagnation, if persistent, although better than average for a night value.

Fair (ADI 21-40): stagnation may be indicated if accompanied by persistent low wind speeds.

Generally Good (ADI 41-60): climatological afternoon values in most inland forested areas of the US fall within this range.

Good (ADI 61-100): typical case burning weather values are in this range.

Very Good (ADI > 100): but may indirectly indicate hazardous conditions.

NOTE: Early and late in each period, both day and night.

LOW VISIBILITY OCCURRENCE RISK INDEX (LVORI): A numerical index derived from ADI and relative humidity. It indicates the probability of visibility restriction caused by smoke and or fog, and is based on a study of traffic accidents in Florida. The categories are as follows:

1: Lowest proportion of accidents with smoke and/or fog reported (130 of 127,604 accidents, or just over 0.0010 accidents).

2. Physical or statistical reasons for not including in category 1, but proportion of accidents not significantly higher.

3. Higher proportion of accidents than category 1, by about 30 to 50 percent, marginal significance (between 1 and 5 percent).

4. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 2.

5. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 3 to 10.

6. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 10 to 20.

7. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 20 to 40.

8. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 40 to 75.

9. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 75 to 125.

10. Significantly higher than category 1, by a factor of 150.

NOTE: Early and late in each period, both day and night.

MINIMUM SURFACE VISIBILITY AND OBSTRUCTION (MIN VSBY) : The minimum visibility at the surface, and the type of obstruction reducing it, if reduced. Only visibility values below 7 statute miles will be accompanied by an obstruction. Visibility of 7 to 10 miles is considered unrestricted.

NOTE: Only used by GSP, first two periods, early and late.

INVERSION: BEGIN/END & BURNOFF TEMPERATURE: Represents the temperature and time at which the morning inversion will burn off as well as the time it will set up in the evening. If the inversion is not surface-based (yet still at low levels, e.g. below 1000 ft), meteorological factors other than nighttime radiational cooling may be taking place and as such, inversion information may not be given ("Inversion" remains in the forecast through the day, which would be reflected by a low mixing height). Conversely, there will be situations when a low-level inversion does not develop at night and thus "NONE" will be noted. Other inversion notation includes CONT (for continued inversion), and MIXED/HHMM (when an inversion mixes out at local time HHMM).

NOTE: Used by WFO's ILM and GSP.

INVERSION: BEGIN/END : Represents the time (in military time) at which the inversion (below 1000 feet) will set up (normally in the evening) and burn off (normally in the morning. Users should keep in mind that the inversion may not always be surface-based, but still be below 1000 feet. Also, there will be situations when a low-level inversion does not develop at night, and thus "NONE" will be noted. When an inversion is expected to continue through a period, "CONT" will be noted.

NOTE: Only used by WFO CHS.

TRANSPORT WND: Represents the transport wind, or the average wind direction and speed (MPH) from the surface to the top of the mixed layer (mixing height). Direction indicates where the wind is blowing from.

VENT RATE: Represents the ventilation rate (FT MPH), or the potential for the atmosphere to disperse smoke. It is computed by multiplying the mixing height by the transport wind. Ventilation rates are used to determine Burn Categories.

WPA (Wind Profile Analysis): Offices serving counties in North Carolina (GSP and ILM) may also include a wind profile analysis (March through May at GSP, year round at ILM), but will not include dispersion or burn category, since the values defining these elements differ from North Carolina to South Carolina.

At the bottom of the forecast for each forecast area (zone grouping), an extended forecast for days three through seven will be appended. This will be include a forecast of winds and minimum relative humidity.

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Fire Weather Point Forecast Matrix (PFW)

NWS Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

The Fire Weather Point Forecast Matrix (PFW) is a tabular-type product used by natural resource management personnel for decision support related to pre-suppression and other planning or resource management activities at or near a specific point. These points are predetermined by the customers, and are semi-permanent in nature, meaning they can be changed from time to time, but not on a daily basis.
Product Overview and Issuance Criteria

The PFW provides a detailed prediction of elements for three days out at 3-hour intervals, including smoke management parameters through day 2, and a more general 3 to 7 day forecast without smoke management parameters. The winds given in this forecast are not terrain corrected winds. The PFW is issued twice daily, once during the morning (between 3:00 and 6:30 AM), and the other during the afternoon (between 2:00 and 4:00 PM). For an example and information on decoding the product, click on PFW Guide.

Note: Only issued by GSP.

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Fire Weather Area Forecast Matrix (AFW)

NWS Greenville-Spartanburg, SC

The Fire Weather Point Forecast Matrix (AFW) is a tabular-type product used by natural resource management personnel for decision support related to pre-suppression and other planning or resource management activities in a specific fire weather zone. These forecasts are produced for each individual fire weather zone, usually one county (example: Greenwood County), but in some cases a part of a county (example: Pickens Mountains), or parts of several counties (example: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which is in Swain and Haywood Counties).
Product Overview and Issuance Criteria

The AFW provides a detailed prediction of elements for three days out at 3-hour intervals, including smoke management parameters through day 2, and a more general 3 to 7 day forecast without smoke management parameters. The winds given in this forecast are not terrain corrected winds. The AFW is issued twice daily, once during the morning (between 3:00 and 6:30 AM), and the other during the afternoon (between 2:00 and 4:00 PM). For an example and information on decoding the product, click on AFW Guide.

Note: Only issued by GSP.

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Site Specific Wildland Fire Forecasts (Spot Forecasts) (FWS)

Background

Spot forecasts will be issued on request in support of wildfire and natural resource management. The forecasts are usually issued with a turn-around time of 30 to 60 minutes, unless the request is for the next day, in which case the fulfillment may be delayed until the date of ignition, depending on forecast workload and duty priorities. Requests can be submitted up to one day before a specified ignition time by utilizing the "NWS Spot" webpage available from each NWS office's website. The spot forecast request page is nationally stabdardized, and prompts the customer for information about the location, elevation and size of the fire, as well as for observations and a contact phone number. The customer can customize their request by selecting which elements they need and for which forecast periods. A "Remarks" section allows the customer to ask for additional forecast elements or time periods, highlight to the forecaster the most important element(s), and/or request a NOAA Hysplit Model trajectory forecast. Soon after the spot forecast request is submitted, the NWS will produce the forecast, and it will be made available from the same webpage. In case of an internet outage, the customer may fax in a request, using form D-1.

Content/Format

Spot forecasts typically cover three 12 hours periods (e.g., Today, Tonight, Tomorrow), but may cover few or more periods as the customer requests. Any forecast beyond day two will typically be an outlook.

The FWS format is specified in National Weather Service Directive 10-401. There are esentially two FWS foremats available: (1) narrative, and (2) tabular. The narrative format is generally in 12 hours blocks out to around 36 hours. The tabular format can provide detailed information on the individual parameters in 1, 2 or 3 hour increments. Due to a nationwide agreement between the NWS and various state and federal forestry agencies, the narrative format must be used to satisfy spot forecast requests for wildfires.

FWS's will be headlined for Red Flag Warnings or Fire Weather Watches. The forecast will then begin with a meteorological discussion, and will include any of the following information as designated by the requesting customer: sky/weather, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed (20 ft, 2min), mixing height and transport wind. Additional elements such as inversion times, Atmospheric Dispersion Index (ADI) and Low Visibility Occurrence Risk Index (LVORI) may also be requested.

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National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) Forecasts (FWM)

Issuance

NFDRS forecasts will be issued for any predetermined site from which an NFDRS observation is received, provided the observation is received on time, is complete, and is deemed accurate. The land management agencies will determine which observation sites (normally RAWS sites) will be NFDRS sites. Initiation of NFDRS forecasts for a new site will be coordinated with the NWS, and the agency requesting new NFDRS service will provide the NWS with information about the site location.

Contents

The format of the NFDRS Forecast is specified in National Weather Service Directive 10-401. The NFDRS forecast will be a forecast of the next day observation at 1300 LST. The forecast will include expected state of weather, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction ( to 16 points) at 1300 LST. The forecast also includes the expected lightning activity level for the next day and a half, the 24 hour maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity, the 24 hour precipitation duration, and whether fuels will be wet (wet flag) at 1300 LST.

Procedures

The land management agencies are responsible for taking, quality controlling, transmitting and archiving the NFDRS observations. Observation must be received at the NWS in a timely manner. Forecasts will only be prepared for predetermined sites, and only from those sites for which an observation has been received. The NWS will prepare and transmit the NFDRS forecasts no later than 4 PM. Although the data cutoff time for ingest into the NFDRS software is 7 PM, preliminary calculations based on the forecast are used by the land managers to make staffing decisions at shift briefing time (4 PM).

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Fire Weather Watch and Red Flag Program (RFW)

Criteria

A Red Flag event is defined as a combination of high (or greater) fire danger and critical weather elements. For South Carolina, the two or more of the following weather criteria must be occurring or expected, in addition to high (or greater) fire danger. Wind criteria are for 10 meter, 2 minute average wind. A 10% reduction must be applied to the criteria when comparing against the FWF wind, which is a 20 ft 2 minute average wind.

Relative Humidity of 25% or less.

Sustained wind of 20 mph or greater, or gusts to 30 mph or greater.

Dry lightning.

A significant wind shift during times of active fire suppression.

Fire danger will be assessed by the land management agencies, and will be obtained from them by the National Weather Service.

If Red Flag criteria are occurring, or expected within 24 hours, a Red Flag Warning will be issued, and will remain in effect until the conditions abate or are no longer expected.

If Red Flag criteria are expected within 12 to 72 hours, a Fire Weather Watch will be issued, and will remain in effect until the watch is upgraded to a Red Flag Warning, or conditions are no longer expected to develop. Fire Weather Watches cannot be issued within 12 hours of the expected event. That is why collaboration between the NWS and the land managers the day before an expected or possible event is critical.

Contents
The format of the Red Flag Warning and Fire Weather Watch is specified in National Weather Service Directive 10-401. A Red Flag Warning or Fire Weather Watch will begin with a headline stating which product is in effect, the area the product covers, and the meteorological reason why the product was issued.

Procedures

When ever the meteorological criteria for a Red Flag event are occurring or expected to occur within 72 hours, the NWS office will contact the land management agencies to obtain a determination of fire danger. If the the combined fire danger rating and meteorological criteria warrant a Red Flag product, the NWS and land management agencies will reach a consensus on whether to issue the product, and for which areas at which times. Fire Weather Watches and Red Flag Warnings will be aired on NOAA Weather Radio. (TOP)

SC Red Flag Fire Alert

A Red Flag Fire Alert will be issued by the South Carolina Forestry Commission (SCFC) with the meteorological input from the NWS Forecast Office in Columbia. The Alert will be issued when conditions that support potentially destructive forest fires are worsening. It will continue in effect until the SCFC cancels it.

The NWS office in Columbia, South Carolina, will transmit Red Flag Fire Alerts for all of South Carolina, as a cooperative service to the SCFC. These will be delivered under the product header, Rangeland Fire Danger Statement. The text will be preformatted, with the body of the alert written by the SCFC. The SC Red Flag Fire Alert will be aired on NOAA Weather Radio. (TOP)

SC Burn Ban

A SC Burn Ban will be issued by the South Carolina Forestry Commission (SCFC). The Ban will continue in effect until the SCFC cancels it.

The NWS office in Columbia, South Carolina, will transmit the Burn Ban for all of South Carolina, as a cooperative service to the SCFC. This will be delivered under the product header, Rangeland Fire Danger Statement. The text will be preformatted, with the body of the alert written by the SCFC. The SC Burn Ban will be aired on NOAA Weather Radio. (TOP)

Fire Danger Statements

The NWS will issue a Fire Danger Statement when fire danger and/or fire occurrence is high, and weather conditions are near critical levels. Under these circumstances, land management agencies may request that the NWS issue a Fire Danger Statement or Blow-Up Alert. These statements will be issued in coordination with the requesting agency and will only be issued with their approval. The NWS will use the Special Weather Statement (SPS) for these issuances, with the headline "...Fire Danger Statement...", and the following call to action statement: "Please refer to your local burn permitting authorities on whether you can burn today. If you do burn...you are advised to use extreme caution." Fire Danger Statements will be aired on NOAA Weather Radio. (TOP)

Participation in Interagency Groups

The NWS and its customers will meet from time to time, for the purpose of reviewing the operational relationships agreed to in this plan, and as partners in other interagency meetings.

Meetings may be between one NWS office and all of its customers from several states, a state meeting of all NWS offices and fire weather customers within South Carolina, or a meeting conducted by a customer group with the NWS offices invited either individually or collectively.

Customers may at times invite NWS representatives to serve on an interagency group at either the state or national level. These groups may serve a variety of purposes, such as program review, service evaluation, scientific advisory, or joint decision making.

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Special Services

Special fire weather services are those services that are uniquely required by land management agencies and go beyond the normal forecast operations of the NWS. Special services include Incident Meteorologist (IMET) deployment using the All Hazards Meteorological Response System (AMRS), station visits, weather observer training, participation in user agency personnel training, outreach and other pertinent meteorological services.


There are a variety of ways that NWS personnel can be requested by land management agencies. Most requests can be made through the Fire Weather Program Leader or Meteorologist-in-Charge at the appropriate NWS Forecast Office. IMET support, for large wildfires, major all hazards incidents or other significant weather sensitive events (such as those with a Presidential or FEMA Declaration) should be placed through the South Carolina Interagency Coordination Center.

Typically, special services require NWS personnel to be away from the Forecast Office and will require user agencies to reimburse the NWS for expenses such as overtime, travel and per diem. For IMET support, reimbursable expenses include overtime, travel, per diem, equipment maintenance and transportation of the IMET and equipment.

For short term incidents or events, NWS personnel will provide temporary on-scene services when possible until either the short term incident or event ends, or the formal request for an IMET has been approved and the IMET arrives on-scene. Costs associated with NWS personnel on short term incidents will generally be covered by the personnel’s home office with no reimbursement required by the land management agency.

Reimbursement of costs for special services will be as outlined in the Interagency Agreement for Meteorological Services

Advanced Technology Meteorological Unit (ATMU) Services

The Advanced Technology Meteorological Unit (ATMU) is a modularized and mobile system of equipment used by an Incident Meteorologist (IMET) for data collection and product preparation. The ATMU is a national resource. There are 25 ATMUs cached around the country, mostly in the western states. The nearest ATMU cache to South Carolina is London, KY, where two are maintained.

The ATMU consists of two (2) modules. The first module contains a theodolite with tripod, a belt weather kit, Pibal weather balloons, a nozzle and regulator for a helium tank, and office supplies and miscellaneous expendables. Its volume is 13.8 cubic feet and it weighs 122 pounds.

The second module, known as the AMRS, contains a laptop computer, a satellite dish for obtaining weather data, and a printer. This module is also a national resource, but is located at the National Weather Service offices that have an IMET on station. The volume of the satellite dish is 13.8 cubic feet, and it weighs 122 pounds.

Requests for the ATMU, AMRS, and IMET should be made through the local Interagency State Coordination Center. Typically, the IMET nearest the incident will be deployed. However, during times of limited resources, IMETs from other areas of the country may be called. This decision will be made by the Special Meteorologist to NIFC (SMN) in conjunction with the MIC and IMET from the affected offices.

The mobilization of the ATMU, AMRS and the IMET is coordinated through the local State Interagency Coordination Center, the Southern Area Interagency Fire Cache, and the Southern Area Coordination Center (SACC). Demobilization is initiated at the incident, and coordinated through the Coordination Centers previously mentioned. For more specific information, reference the Southern Area and the National Interagency Mobilization Guides.

The requesting agency is responsible for any storage of the unit while in transit, and shelter for the IMET and unit at the site. A sheltered work area, of at least 50 square feet with a table and chair, must be protected from excessive dust, free of standing water or condensation, and must be heated and/or cooled sufficiently to allow efficient operation of equipment. Power (120V AC) must be provided for the ATMU's electrical equipment and priority telephone access during certain short periods each day must be made available.

Upon arrival at the incident and after going through the appropriate check-in procedures, the IMET will:

  1. Brief the Fire Behavior Analyst (FBAN), Planning Section Chief (PSC), and the Incident Commander (IC) on current and expected weather as it affects the fire.
  2. Establish a schedule with the IC and the FBAN for written forecasts and formal briefings.
  3. Request a briefing of the fire situation and potential behavior problems from the FBAN. As time and resources permit, incident management should arrange for an aerial inspection trip for the meteorologist and should provide the forecaster with current fireline maps. If possible, the IMET should be assigned a radio with the fireline frequency.
  4. Arrange for a schedule of observations from key points around the fire and from nearby lookouts and fire danger stations, in cooperation with the FBAN and PSC. On large fires, some personnel (at least two) should be permanently assigned to this duty. On smaller fires, this information can be provided by Division Supervisors equipped with belt weather kits.
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Fire Weather Training

NWS meteorologists will be available to assist in user-oriented training, such as at fire behavior schools (e.g. S-290), and weather related courses. Requests should be made through the Meteorologist-in-Charge as early as possible after dates for such training have been determined.

Other Special Services

Other special services include weather station visits by user agency personnel, weather observer training, and course development work. These activities would typically be at the full expense of the requesting agency unless other arrangements have been made.

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Communications

The primary means of communication used by the NWS is Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Products transmitted through AWIPS include: pre-suppression forecasts, Fire Weather Watches, Red Flag Warnings, Fire Danger statements, and NFDRS station forecasts.

Spot forecasts will be disseminated to the requesting agency by means of the internet, with telefax (FAX) as a backup. Anytime a request for a spot forecast is made by fax , the requesting agency must include a FAX number. A voice number should also be included in the event problems or questions arise with the request, the forecast, or the transmission.

Public products produced by the National Weather Service are available over NOAA Weather Radio (NWR). As of January 31, 2012, the following NWR transmitters service South Carolina: (map)

Site, Call Sign, Frequency, NWS Office:

BARNWELL, KHC29, 162.500, COLUMBIA, SC
BEAUFORT, WXJ23, 162.450, CHARLESTON, SC
CHARLESTON, KHB29, 162.550, CHARLESTON, SC
CHERAW, WXK90, 162.450, COLUMBIA, SC
COLUMBIA, WXJ20, 162.400, COLUMBIA, SC
CONWAY/MYRTLE BEACH, KEC95, 162.400, WILMINGTON, NC
CROSS, WXM93, 162.475, CHARLESTON, SC
FLORENCE, WXJ22, 162.550, WILMINGTON, NC
GEORGETOWN, WNG628, 162.500, WILMINGTON< NC
GREENVILLE, WXJ21, 162.550, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
KIRKSEY, KHC28, 162.425, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
ORANGEBURG, KHA35, 162.525, COLUMBIA, SC
ROCK HILL, KHC27, 162.425, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
SUMTER, WWG77, 162.475, COLUMBIA, SC

AUGUSTA, GA, WXK54, 162.550, COLUMBIA, SC
CLAYTON, GA, KXI81, 162.450, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
SAVANNAH, GA, KEC85, 162.400, CHARLESTON, SC
TOCCOA, GA, WWH24, 162.425, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
WAYNESBORO, GA, WXM88, 162.425, COLUMBIA, SC

CHARLOTTE, NC, WXL70, 162.475, GREENVILLE/SPARTANBURG, SC
SAINT PAULS, NC, WXL50, 162.475, WILMINGTON, NC
BADIN, NC, WWF60, 162.425, RALEIGH/DURHAM, NC

Other means of communications may be utilized upon mutual agreement with user agencies.