The Ides Of March Supercell Outbreak Across
Northeast Georgia and Upstate South Carolina
Justin D. Lane
NOAA/National Weather Service
A supercell thunderstorm moves through Abbeville, South Carolina, on Saturday 15 March 2008. Numerous reports of hail and wind damage were received from Abbeville County and a tornado touched down near Due West. Image courtesy of GwdToday.com, photographer unknown.
Author's Note: The following report has not been subjected to the scientific peer review process.
On 15 March 2008, a series of supercell thunderstorms produced a
significant outbreak of severe weather across Upstate South Carolina
and northeast Georgia (Fig. 1). Numerous reports of large hail were
received, including one report of softball size hail in Anderson
County, South Carolina. In addition, three tornadoes were confirmed,
the strongest being the EF2 tornado that tracked over southeast
Elbert County, Georgia. The other two tornadoes affected Franklin
and Hart counties in Georgia, and northeast Abbeville County in South
Carolina, and were rated at EF0 intensity. This was an unusual event
for the region, as the atmospheric ingredients necessary for supercell
thunderstorms rarely coexist across northeast Georgia and the western
Carolinas. Nevertheless, the severe weather episode was well-forecast
several days in advance by the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather
Forecast Office (WFO) at Greenville-Spartanburg (GSP) and by the NWS
Storm Prediction Center (SPC).
Click here for a list of storm reports from this event
Figure 1. Preliminary SPC storm reports for 15 March 2008. Tornado reports
are shown in red, large hail reports are shown in green, and damaging wind
reports are shown in blue. Black squares represent reports of wind gusts
of 65 knots or greater, while black triangles are reports of hail 2 inches
in diameter or larger.
Note that all times in this report are referenced to Coordinated Univeral
Time (UTC), which is four hours ahead of Eastern Daylight Time (EDT).
To convert to EDT, subtract four hours from the UTC time.
The possibility of a significant outbreak of severe weather occurring
on 15 March 2008 within the GSP County Warning and Forecast Area (CWFA)
was first identified by GSP forecasters on 11 March. The Area Forecast
Discussion issued by GSP at 1800 UTC mentioned the resemblance of
forecast soundings from the National Centers for Environmental
Predictionís (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) model to the
"loaded gun" sounding (Fig. 2) often associated with Great Plains
Figure 2. An example of a "loaded gun" sounding.
One of the important characteristics of this sounding that contributes
to its strong potential instability is the layer of steep, nearly
dry-adiabatic lapse rates that exists above the moist boundary layer.
This layer is referred to as the "elevated mixed layer." Originating
from the warm and dry high-elevation regions of northern Mexico, strong
southwest flow in the 5,000 to 10,000 feet layer often advects this
airmass north and east over the southern Great Plains and lower
Mississippi Valley during Spring. As this warm, dry air overspreads
relatively cool, moist maritime air originating from the Gulf of Mexico,
a strong inversion becomes established at the top of the marine layer.
This inversion inhibits or "caps" convective development. Due to the
high degree of potential instability in the sounding, removal of the
cap often results in explosive convective development, hence the term
"loaded gun." It is quite rare for the elevated mixed layer to advect
much further east than the lower Mississippi Valley (Lanicci and Warner,
1991). This is due to the fact that convection often significantly
modifies (moistens and warms) this layer before it reaches Georgia and
the Carolinas. This results in significant weakening of mid-level lapse
rates, and therefore weaker potential instability.
Subsequent model runs of the GFS continued to indicate the potential
for an outbreak of severe weather on 15 March, increasing forecastersí
confidence that a significant event would occur. The Hazardous Weather
Outlook (HWO) issued by GSP at 0925 UTC on 12 March specified that the
Piedmont and Foothills of the western Carolinas and northeast Georgia
were the most likely areas to receive severe weather on Saturday,
The SPC Day 3 Convective Outlook, issued at 0722 UTC on 13 March
(Fig. 3) featured a slight risk for severe weather across much of the
Southeast. Meanwhile, GSP continued to highlight the potential for a
severe weather outbreak in the HWO issued at 0936 UTC on 13 March and
specifically mentioned areas south of Interstate 85 as being the highest
threat area. With confidence increasing that a significant event was
likely, GSP began making plans to augment staffing for 15 March.
Figure 3. SPC graphical Day 3 Convective Outlook issued 0722 UTC
13 March 2008.
The SPC Day 2 convective outlook issued at 0541 UTC on 14 March (Fig. 4a)
continued to indicate a slight chance for severe weather across much of
the Southeast. The probabilistic Day 2 outlook (Fig. 4b) featured an area
of 30% or greater probability of severe weather that covered the southern
half of the GSP CWFA. The updated probabilistic Day 2 outlook, issued at
1729 UTC on 14 March (Fig. 4d), featured an area of 10% or greater chance
of significant severe weather across much of northern Georgia and the
lower Piedmont and northern Midlands of South Carolina.
Figure 4. Categorical Day 2 Convective Outlook (a.) and Probabilistic
Outlook (b.) issued by SPC at 0541 UTC 14 March 2008. Categorical Outlook
(c.) and Probabilistic Outlook (d.) issued at 1729 UTC on 14 March. The
light blue hatched area in (d.) indicates the greater than 10% probability
of significant severe weather.
Finally, the Day 1 Convective Outlook issued by SPC at 0559 UTC on
15 March (Fig. 5) indicated a moderate risk for severe weather for much
of north Georgia, and the Upstate and Midlands of South Carolina. The
probabilistic outlook issued at this time featured a large area of 30%
or greater probability of large hail and damaging wind, along with a
15% or greater probability of tornadoes across much of South Carolina,
as well as central and north Georgia. The threat for severe weather
was considered significant enough for the SPC to issue a Public Severe
Weather Outlook at 1004 UTC.
Figure 5.(a.) Categorical Day 1 Convective Outlook issued by SPC at
0559 UTC 15 March 2008. Probabilistic forecasts are shown for (b.)
large hail, (c.) tornadoes, and (d.) damaging wind gusts.
3. Synoptic Characteristics
On the 500 hPa analysis at 1200 UTC on 15 March, a low amplitude,
fast, quasi-zonal flow was observed across much of the southern half
of the country (Fig. 6). A weak short wave trough was moving off the
East Coast, while another weak short wave trough was moving out of
the Great Plains and into the Mississippi Valley. Short wave ridging
was noted between these two features over the Appalachian Mountains.
Figure 6. SPC 500 hPa objective analysis of geopotential height,
temperature, and wind barbs at 1200 UTC 15 March.
The 300 mb analysis (Fig. 7) at 1200 UTC on 15 March indicated the
upper-level reflection of the short wave trough over the Mississippi
Valley, with a strong jet streak (125 - 150 knots) upstream of the
trough over the southern Plains. This resulted in strong upper
divergence over much of the Mississippi Valley and western Ohio
Valley. The rear entrance region of a weaker jet associated with the
short wave trough over the east coast produced a second area of upper
divergence over Georgia and the Carolinas. This area of forcing was
responsible for isolated, marginally severe thunderstorms over the
lower Piedmont of South Carolina during the late morning hours.
Figure 7. SPC 300 hPa objective analysis of isotachs, streamlines, and
divergence at 1200 UTC 15 March.
The 1200 UTC surface analysis from the Hydrometeorological Prediction
Center (HPC)(Fig. 8) indicated an area of low pressure across southern
Arkansas, with a quasi-stationary frontal boundary extending from the
surface low across Mississippi and Alabama and into north Georgia and
the Midlands of South Carolina. The frontal boundary was clearly seen
in the observations shown on the regional surface plot at the same
time (Fig. 9). An airmass characterized by temperatures and dewpoint
temperatures in the 60s was observed along the Coastal Plain. Meanwhile,
temperatures and dewpoints were in the 40s across the Piedmont and
Foothills of the Carolinas.
Figure 8. HPC analysis of surface fronts and pressure at 1200 UTC
Figure 9. Regional surface plot at 1243 UTC 15 March, including surface
observations taken at 1150 UTC. Data are plotted according to the
traditional station model.
The similarity between the observed sounding from Birmingham, Alabama
(BMX), at 1200 UTC on 15 March (Fig. 10) and the sounding in Figure 2
was notable. A very moist layer of air was indicated from the surface
to around 850 hPa. This layer was capped by a strong temperature
inversion. Very steep lapse rates were observed above the inversion.
Although this sounding featured very little instability (106 J/kg),
the potential instability in the sounding was quite high, owing to the
steep mid-level lapse and the moist boundary layer. Modifying this
sounding for a surface temperature of around 70 degrees F, and a
dewpoint of around 65 degrees F, produced convective available
potential energy (CAPE) in excess of 2000 J/kg, a relatively large
CAPE value for the Southeast in March.
Figure 10. Observed sounding from Birmingham, Alabama (BMX), at 1200 UTC
15 March. The red line is the temperature sounding and the green line
is the dewpoint sounding. Wind barbs are shown in the column on the
right. A hodograph is indicated in the upper left corner. Image
created using RAOB v.5.8 for Windows.
The southeast regional radar composite image at 1200 UTC on 15 March
indicated two areas of elevated convection north of the frontal boundary
over the region (Fig. 11). One was located over Upstate South Carolina,
but a larger area was over northern Mississippi. Meanwhile, the capping
inversion appeared to be inhibiting convective development over the warm
sector. Based on this information, only minor changes were made to the
Day 1 Convective Outlook when it was updated at 1227 UTC.
Figure 11. Southeast regional radar image at 1200 UTC on
15 March 2008. Image obtained from the Iowa Environmental Mesonet.
During the middle part of the morning, all signs pointed to the rapid
development of severe thunderstorms in the favorable environment ahead
of convection moving from north Alabama into north Georgia. As a
result, the SPC issued a Tornado Watch for much of north Georgia and
the Upstate and Midlands of South Carolina at 1500 UTC (Fig. 12).
The moderate risk area was expanded on the updated Day 1 Convective
Outlook issued at 1614 UTC and as of late morning, a severe weather
outbreak appeared to be likely.
Figure 12. Outline of Tornado Watch number 119 issued by the SPC
at 1500 UTC on 15 March 2008.
The absence of convection in the warm sector during the morning of
15 March and resultant lack of overturning allowed the plume of steep
mid-level lapse rates sampled by the 1200 UTC BMX sounding to advect
over the western Carolinas and northeast Georgia during the afternoon.
Increasing south to southeast flow responding to the surface low caused
the frontal boundary to move slightly to the north during the afternoon.
Meanwhile, dewpoint temperatures in the 60s were being drawn northward
to the boundary (Fig. 13). As the upper jet streak continued to dig
into the Southeast, increasing upper divergence within the left exit
region lifted and cooled the capping inversion, allowing for explosive
release of the potential instability over much of South Carolina and
north and central Georgia.
Figure 13. As in Fig. 9, except at 1643 UTC.
The 1800 UTC sounding from BMX (Fig. 14) revealed the evolution of the
atmosphere during the morning and early afternoon. An inversion remained,
but had been lifted to around 700 hPa. Despite the presence of this
inversion, the atmosphere was no longer capped, as heating and moistening
of the boundary layer had increased instability sufficiently so that an
air parcel lifted from the surface experienced positive buoyancy from
the lifted condensation level (LCL) through the depth of the troposphere.
The sounding yielded almost 1500 J/kg of CAPE. Storm Relative Helicity
(SRH) in the sounding was 375 m2/s2 in the 0-3 km layer, and 309 m2/s2
in the 0-1 km layer. These values of CAPE and SRH were well within the
range of values found by Lane (2008) to be characteristic of significant
tornado environments over the western Carolinas and northeast Georgia.
Figure 14. As in Fig. 10, except at 1800 UTC 15 March.
4. Convective Evolution
By 1700 UTC, scattered supercell thunderstorms developed along the
stationary front across northern Alabama and north Georgia. These
storms produced widespread severe weather across these areas as
they moved along the stationary front toward the Carolinas. GSP
forecasters, recognizing the threat that these storms posed to the
GSP CWFA, issued a Special Weather Statement (SPS) at 1706 UTC to
alert customers and partners of the increasing potential for
dangerous thunderstorms. The growing threat was also noted by the
SPC at 1722 UTC. The first warning issued by WFO GSP during the
afternoon of 15 March was a Tornado Warning at 1818 UTC for portions
of Elbert, Hart, and Franklin Counties in Georgia, as a well-organized
supercell moved across northeast Georgia. The composite reflectivity
from the Greer (KGSP) Weather Service Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D)
at 1840 UTC and 1848 UTC (Fig. 15) showed the initial supercell moving
into Franklin County. A sequence of storm relative velocity (SRV)
images from KGSP (Fig. 16) indicated a deep, but relatively broad
mesocyclone at 1840 UTC. However, by 1848 UTC, a smaller, more
intense circulation was observed near the center of the mesocyclonic
circulation on the Franklin and Hart county border (Fig. 17). A
gate-to-gate velocity couplet of around 80 knots (35 knots outbound +
45 knots inbound) was observed at 0.5 degrees. This velocity
differential qualified this circulation as a Tornado Vortex Signature
(TVS). However, the radar algorithm did not identify this feature as
a TVS until the next volume scan. Incidentally, an EF0 tornado was
in progress in association with this rotational signature across
southeast Franklin and extreme southwest Hart County (Fig. 18).
However, the tornado was near the end of its life cycle when the
gate-to-gate shear became evident in radar data. By the time the
radar algorithm identified the circulation as a TVS, the tornado
Figure 15. Composite reflectivity from KGSP radar at (a.) 1840 UTC and
(b.) 1848 UTC.
Figure 16. Storm relative velocity images from KGSP at 1840 UTC at
(a.) 0.5 degrees, (b.) 1.3 degrees, (c.) 2.4 degrees, and (d.) 3.1 degrees.
The white arrows in (b.) indicate the motion associated with a couplet
of inbound and outbound targets that identify a low level mesocyclone.
The speed is given by the color table at the lower right, where negative
values represent motion toward the radar and positive values represent
motion away from the radar, by convention.
Figure 17. As in Fig. 16, except at 1848 UTC. The white arrow shows
the strongest gate-to-gate shear on the 0.5 degree scan.
Figure 18. Track of tornado across parts of Franklin County and Hart
County, Georgia, on 15 March 2008. The tornado track is delineated by
the heavy black line below Franklin Springs and Royston. The background
map is from Delorme Street Atlas USA.
The environment across northeast Georgia remained highly favorable for
additional supercell thunderstorms and tornadoes during the early
afternoon. In fact, the SPC upgraded the Day 1 Convective Outlook at
1940 UTC to a high risk of severe weather across part of northeast
Georgia and the lower Piedmont of South Carolina.
A Tornado Warning was issued for Elbert County, Georgia, at 1954 UTC
for another supercell thunderstorm moving out of north central Georgia.
A series of reflectivity images from KGSP (Fig. 19) showed the low-level
structure of this storm, including an impressive hook echo, as it was
producing an EF2 tornado across extreme southern Elbert County. The
three-dimensional cross section from KGSP at 2016 UTC depicted in
Figure 20 indicated classic supercell structure, including a strongly
tilted updraft, bounded weak echo region (BWER), and a high reflectivity
core suspended aloft. These features were indicative of a very strong,
Figure 19. Radar reflectivity from KGSP at 0.5 degrees at (a.) 2016 UTC,
(b.) 2021 UTC, (c.) 2025 UTC, and (d.) 2029 UTC on 15 March. The white
arrow in (b.) indicates the location of a well-defined hook echo. The
reflectivity scale is shown by the color bar on the left of each image.
Figure 20. Radar volumetric cross-section of the Elbert County storm
at 2016 UTC. The white arrows indicate the location of a BWER, tilted
updraft, and an elevated hail core. The color scale is the same as in
Figure 19. Image made with GR2Analyst software.
A sequence of SRV images from KGSP corresponding to the reflectivity
images in Figure 19 indicated a rapidly strengthening low-level
circulation (Fig. 21). Note that the 2012 UTC SRV image is shown in
place of the 2016 UTC image due to velocity dealiasing errors. A gate-
to-gate rotational couplet of around 85 knots was evident at 2012 UTC.
By 2020 UTC, this couplet strengthened to greater than 100 knots. The
EF2 tornado developed at 2015 UTC and dissipated over the extreme
southeast corner of the county at 2030 UTC (Fig. 22). Although an
operator-defined TVS was identified prior to tornado development, the
radar algorithm did not identify this feature as a TVS until near the
end of this tornadoís life cycle.
Figure 21. Images of 0.5 degree storm relative velocity from KGSP at
(a.) 2012 UTC, (b.) 2021 UTC, (c.) 2025 UTC, and (d.) 2029 UTC on
15 March. The white arrow in (b.) denotes the gate-to-gate shear of
greater than 100 knots. The speed values are given by the color table
in the lower right corner of the figure. By convention, negative
values represent motion toward from the radar while positive values
represent motion away from the radar.
Figure 22. Track of tornado across the southern part of Elbert County,
Georgia, on 15 March 2008. The tornado track is delineated by the heavy
black line. The background map is from Delorme Street Atlas USA.
As the tornadic supercell thunderstorms moved out of the eastern end
of the original Tornado Watch and into the eastern Piedmont of South
Carolina, a new Tornado Watch was issued by the SPC at 2035 UTC. The
Elbert supercell thunderstorm continued to produce periodic tornadoes as
it moved over the South Carolina Midlands during the late afternoon
and early evening. In addition, very large hail from this storm caused
millions of dollars in property damage as the core of the storm moved
over southern Greenwood County (Fig. 23).
Figure 23. This manufactured home was damaged by wind driven hail near
Callison, South Carolina, on 15 March 2008. Image courtesy of Greenwood
County Emergency Management.
The final supercell of the day that affected the GSP CWA was not
tornadic, but produced extremely large hail (tennis ball to soft ball
size) across southern Anderson, northern Abbeville, and northern
Greenwood counties. A series of reflectivity scans from KGSP at
2109 UTC is presented in Figure 24. This was around the time that
softball size hail was reported by a trained spotter located 7 miles
northeast of Iva in southern Anderson County. The images indicated
an approximately 10,000 foot layer (between 10,000 feet and 20,000 feet
AGL) in which a three-body scatter spike (TBSS) was evident extending
southwest from the high reflectivity core. This was an indication of
very large hail. The three-dimensional cross section in Figure 25
from 2109 UTC indicated a large area of greater than 60 dBz reflectivity
from the low levels of the storm to about 20,000 feet. There was an area
of greater than 70 dBz reflectivity at around 16,000 feet. This was
well above the freezing level of about 10,000 feet as depicted on
regional soundings at 1200 UTC and 1800 UTC. The 50 dBz reflectivity
core extended to around 30,000 feet, which was around 10,000 feet higher
than the -20 degrees C level as indicated on regional soundings. These
factors all point to a thunderstorm that was producing very large hail.
Figure 24. Reflectivity images from KGSP at 2109 UTC at
(a.) 1.8 degrees, (b.) 2.4 degrees, (c.) 3.1 degrees, and (d.) 4.0 degrees.
The white arrow in (a.) indicates a three-body scatter spike indicative
of large hail in the storm core.
Figure 25. As in Figure 20, except at 2109 UTC 15 March.
Strong to severe thunderstorms continued across the western part of
South Carolina and northeast Georgia through the late afternoon hours.
The passage of a cold front during the early part of the evening pushed
the severe thunderstorms to the east of the GSP CWFA ending the threat
for severe weather.
A rare outbreak of classic supercell thunderstorms affected portions
of northeast Georgia and the Upstate of South Carolina on 15 March 2008.
The outbreak was the result of the coexistence of strong vertical wind
shear and moderate levels of instability, which was an unusual situation
in this part of the country. The moderate levels of instability were
largely the result of an atypical eastward advection of the elevated
mixed layer (steep mid-level lapse rates). The superimposition of the
left exit region of a sub-tropical jet streak and the right entrance
region of a maximum in the polar jet resulted in sufficient synoptic-
scale lift to remove the cap, allowing for explosive convective
development on the warm sector side of the quasi-stationary front by
early afternoon. Scattered supercell thunderstorms affected the GSP CWA
from about 1830 UTC to 2130 UTC before moving into the South Carolina
Midlands. Although large hail, and in some cases destructive hail, were
the main impacts in the GSP CWA, two EF0 tornadoes and an EF2 tornado
were also reported.
More images of large hail damage near Callison, South Carolina, on
15 March 2008. Images courtesy of Greenwood County Emergency Management.
Lane, Justin D., 2008: A Comprehensive Climatology of Significant
Tornadoes in the Greenville-Spartanburg, South Carolina County
Warning Area (1880 - 2006). Eastern Region Tech. Attachment
2008-01, 35 pp.
Lanicci, John M., and T. T. Warner, 1991: A Synoptic Climatology of
the Elevated Mixed-Layer Inversion over the Southern Great Plains
in Spring. Part I: Structure, Dynamics, and Seasonal Evolution.
Wea. Forecasting, 6, 198 - 213.
Pat Moore was responsible for conversion of the manuscript to html code.
The convective outlooks, Tornado Watch products, and upper air analyses
were obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. The surface fronts
analyses were obtained from the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center.
The surface observation plots, satellite imagery, and radar mosaics were
obtained from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The
composite reflectivity mosaic was obtained from the Iowa Environmental
Mesonet. Tornado track maps were created using Delorme Street Atlas
USA 2006. Radar reflectivity cross sections were created using GR2Analyst
version 1.22, by Gibson Ridge Software. The upper air sounding images
were made using RAOB version 5.8 for Windows, by Environmental Research
Services, LLC. Other radar images were created using the Java NEXRAD
viewer from the National Climatic Data Center. Greenwood County (SC)
Emergency Management provided most of the damage pictures.