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NWS Raleigh Science Program

The purpose of the science program is to ensure that science and technology are used effectively in forecast and warning operations to fulfill the mission of the NWS. The utilization of science often requires research, many times with collaborative partners in NOAA, academia, and other members of the weather enterprise. Implementing science effectively requires frequent training with both atmospheric and hydrologic science as well as technology and software.




What's New on the NWS Raleigh Science Page

  • CIMMSE Science and Collaboration Blog - Collaboration for Improved Meteorology in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast


    In the Science Infusion, Sharing and References section:
  • Reference - NWP configuration and setup - includes most short and medium range guidance and ensembles - includes the RUC, Rapid Refresh, NAM, GFS, ECMWF, GEFS, GEM, HiresW, HRRR, SREF, and more - updated 2012/08/23

    In the Publications Authored by NWS Raleigh section:
  • Central North Carolina Tornadoes from the 16 April 2011 Outbreak. Parker, M.D., J.L. Blaes, G.M. Lackmann, and S.E. Yuter. Preprint for the Special Symposium on the Tornado Disasters of 2011, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, January 25, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana.

    In the Science Presentations and Posters section:
  • Hurricane Ernesto (2006): Frontal Influence on Precipitation Distribution. Barrett Smith, NWS Raleigh, NC, Jordan Dale, and Gary Lackmann, North Carolina State University. 37th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2012.
  • An 8 Year Lightning Climatology of North Carolina. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC and Morgan Brooks, NWS Milwaukee/Sullivan, WI. Central NC Chapter of the AMS, March 2012.
  • Improving Methods to Forecast Mixing Heights at the NWS Raleigh. Jonathan Blaes, Phil Badgett, and Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. 2012 North Carolina Wildland Fire Alliance and Cooperators Meeting, February 2012.
  • Central North Carolina Tornadoes From the 16 April 2011 Outbreak. Matthew Parker, North Carolina State University, Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, Gary Lackmann, and Sandra Yuter, North Carolina State University. AMS Special Symposium on the Tornado Disasters of 2011, January 2012.
  • An 8 Year Lightning Climatology of North Carolina. Morgan Brooks, NWS Milwaukee/Sullivan, WI, Jonathan Blaes and Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. 36th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2011.
  • Verifying Forecasts of Maximum Mixing Height for Greensboro, NC. Jonathan Blaes and Phillip Badgett, NWS Raleigh, NC. 36th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2011.



    History of NWS Raleigh Science Program and Collaborations

    One of the country's strongest collaborative research relationships between a National Weather Service (NWS) office and a university started in Raleigh in the late 1970's. The process began when meteorologists from the NWS and NC State started collaborating on various projects including internships, seminars, and jointly participating in American Meteorological Society (AMS) meetings. The relationship grew during the 1980's and 1990's with projects such as the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment, the Southeast Consortium on Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes, and various COMET projects. In 1994, the NWS office moved and became collocated with NC State University. In the following years, NWS Raleigh co-sponsored the first AMS regional workshop for operational forecasters and hosted a National Weather Association annual meeting. NWS Raleigh has participated in three NOAA Collaborative Science, Technology, and Applied Research (CSTAR) projects and nearly a dozen COMET projects. The office participates in several NC State meteorology courses, a student internship course for credit, and has hosted numerous student volunteers. Research and science results have been published in several journals, presented in countless conferences, and shared with other NWS offices.

    Collaboration & research success power point presentation A much more thorough and detailed History of the NWS Raleigh Science Program and Collaboration is available.

    A power point presentation illustrating the collaboration & research success between the NWS Raleigh and North Carolina State University is also available.



    Collaboration with NC State

    For many years, the National Weather Service in Raleigh and North Carolina State University have worked together to improve forecast and warning services in the Carolinas. One result of these collaborative efforts has been a better understanding of forecast problems found in the southeast and has often resulted in operational schemes that have helped NWS meteorologists forecast these meteorological phenomena. In addition to the various research projects undertaken, the collaboration also allows students the opportunity to participate in formal internships, to work alongside forecasters, and to volunteer on various projects at the NWS office.

    NC State students visiting the radar during the NC State Student Internship Course for Credit - click to enlarge
    • Funded research projects including COMET, CSTAR and various other experiments
    • Unfunded informal collaborative projects
    • Collaboration with the State Climate Office
    • Online listserver discussions regarding forecast and other meteorological issues
    • Student Career Education Program (SCEP) Students
    • NC State Student Internship Course for Credit (featured in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society)
    • Joint severe operations with students assisting forecasters during active weather events
    • Participation in NC State courses including remote sensing and atmospheric convection
    • Student volunteers assist NWS forecasters in studying various forecast problems and technology issues


    Five Step Process

    Five step process for collaboration - click to enlarge For many years, the National Weather Service in Raleigh and North Carolina State University have worked together to study forecast problems found in the southeast. One result of this collaborative relationship have been improved operational techniques that have helped NWS meteorologists forecast these meteorological phenomena.

    The transition of Research into Operations, often referred to as R2O, is a critical part of this collaborative relationship. At times the relationship takes an O2R2O framework where operational meteorologists bring problems to the researcher's attention who in turn provide improved techniques to the meteorologists.

    The joint collaborations, whether they are R2O or O2R2O, are viewed as a 5-Step Process, whereby research findings ultimately are integrated into operations.

    • Step 1 - Discover & Share (Only the beginning)
    • Step 2 - Demonstrate added value (So what? Show me!)
    • Step 3 - Operational Implementation (Is it practical?)
    • Step 4 - Mastery (By all, not a few)
    • Step 5 - Periodic review (A necessity)



    Large Projects

    CSTAR and COMET program logos A large part of the collaboration has been facilitated with grants to support several large projects including three NOAA Collaborative Science, Technology, and Applied Research (CSTAR) projects and nearly a dozen Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET) projects.

    The latest information on these or any collaborative project is located on the National Weather Service - NC State Collaborative Research & Training Site.


    CSTAR Projects
  • COMET Projects CIFLOW Southeast University Consortium for Severe Storms

    Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE)


    Science Infusion, Sharing and References

    Forecast, Training, and CSTAR Workshop Presentations
    Collaboration Teletraining
    Data and Products
    References and Conceptual Models
    Software, Local Applications, Smart Tools, and AWIPS Procedures


    Event Summaries, Case Studies, and Event Maps

    Event summary example - August 10, 2007 Severe Weather Event Summary - click to open The NWS Raleigh has a long tradition of providing event summaries and case studies for significant and unique meteorological events. The event summaries, case studies, and event maps serve many purposes including: a means to improve our meteorological understanding, a summary of the event for use as a training tool, a means to evaluate the station's performance (determining the training needs of the station and for individuals), and a review of the event for general interest needs. Our inventory of cases is well over 140 and it continues to grow.

    Catalog of Event Summaries, Case Studies and Event Maps




    Science Presentations and Posters by NWS Raleigh

    NWS Raleigh staff members have presented both oral presentations and poster presentations at various conferences, meetings, and workshops. Some of the more recent presentations are shown below.

    Poster example - Experimental Lightning Forecasting in a National Weather Service Forecast Office - click to enlarge Developing a Dataset of Wind Gust Factors to Improve Forecasts of Wind Gusts in Tropical Cyclones (Recorded presentation). Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC; David A. Glenn, NWS Newport, NC; and Donald Reid Hawkins, NWS Wilmington, NC. 2013 Fall ER Science Sharing Conference, November 2013.

    Orographically Induced Cirrus Clouds East of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ryan T. Ellis, NWS Raleigh, NC. Prepared for the 38th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2013.

    Investigation of Extreme Lightning Days in North Carolina. Gail Hartfield and Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC and Gary Lackmann, Michael Graves, and Lindsey Anderson, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Prepared for the 38th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2013.

    A Climatology of Cold Air Damming and Tropical Cyclones in the Southeast U.S.. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC; José Garcia, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC; and Jordan Dale, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. NC Prepared for the 38th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2013.

    Developing a Dataset of Wind Gust Factors to Improve Forecasts of Wind Gusts in Tropical Cyclones. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC; David A. Glenn, NWS Newport, NC; and Donald Reid Hawkins, NWS Wilmington, NC. Prepared for the 38th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2013.

    Hurricane Ernesto (2006): Frontal Influence on Precipitation Distribution. Barrett Smith, NWS Raleigh, NC, Jordan Dale, and Gary Lackmann, North Carolina State University. 37th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2012.

    An 8 Year Lightning Climatology of North Carolina. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC and Morgan Brooks, NWS Milwaukee/Sullivan, WI. Central NC Chapter of the AMS, March 2012.

    Improving Methods to Forecast Mixing Heights at the NWS Raleigh. Jonathan Blaes, Phil Badgett, and Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. 2012 North Carolina Wildland Fire Alliance and Cooperators Meeting, February 2012.

    Central North Carolina Tornadoes From the 16 April 2011 Outbreak | [multimedia version with audio]. Matthew Parker, North Carolina State University, Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, Gary Lackmann, and Sandra Yuter, North Carolina State University. AMS Special Symposium on the Tornado Disasters of 2011, January 2012.

    An 8 Year Lightning Climatology of North Carolina. Morgan Brooks, NWS Milwaukee/Sullivan, WI, Jonathan Blaes and Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. 36th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2011.

    Verifying Forecasts of Maximum Mixing Height for Greensboro, NC. Jonathan Blaes and Phillip Badgett, NWS Raleigh, NC. 36th NWA Annual Meeting, October 2011.

    A Multiple Source Approach to Operational Lightning Prediction. Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. 91st AMS Annual Meeting, January 2011.

    Orographically Induced Cirrus Clouds East of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ryan Ellis, NWS Raleigh, NC. 2010 Virtual Satellite Workshop hosted by the NWS Charleston, SC, November 2010.

    Examination of a Winter Storm Using a Micro Rain Radar and AMDAR Aircraft Soundings. Barrett Smith and Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC. 2010 National Weather Association Annual Meeting, October 2010.

    Orographically Induced Cirrus Clouds East of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ryan Ellis, NWS Raleigh, NC. AMS 17th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, September 2010.

    Using AMDAR Aircraft Observations in Forecast and Warning Operations at the Raleigh Forecast Office. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC. Central NC Chapter of the AMS, November 2009.

    The Effects of Dry Air Ridging on the Rainfall Distribution of Tropical Storm Hanna. Barrett Smith and Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC. 2009 National Weather Association Annual Meeting, October 2009.

    Using AMDAR Aircraft Observations at the National Weather Service Forecast Office Raleigh, North Carolina. Barrett Smith and Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC and Jason Beaman, NWS Mobile, AL. 2009 National Weather Association Annual Meeting, October 2009.

    Overview of North Carolina Climate. Phillip Badgett, NWS Raleigh, NC. HMT NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed-Southeast Research and Planning Workshop, June 2009.

    The Effects of Dry Air Ridging on the Rainfall Distribution of Tropical Storm Hanna. Barrett Smith and Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC. Conference on the Inland Impacts of Tropical Cyclones (IITC), June 2009.

    Experimental Lightning Forecasting in a National Weather Service Forecast Office. Gail Hartfield, NWS Raleigh, NC. AMS Fourth Conference on the Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data, January 2009.

    Non-traditional Convective Storm Verification Methods. Jonathan Blaes, NWS Raleigh, NC. NWS Newport, NC Hurricane Conference, June 2008.

    NWS RAH Aviation Initiatives. Jason Beaman, NWS Raleigh, NC. NWS Charleston, SC Sub-Regional Aviation Workshop, March 2008.




    Publications Authored by NWS Raleigh

    NWS Raleigh staff members have authored numerous articles in various publications and made countless presentations to a variety of conferences and workshops. A listing of the articles published in peer reviewed publications is shown below.


    Parker, M.D., J.L. Blaes, G.M. Lackmann, and S.E. Yuter, 2012: Central North Carolina Tornadoes from the 16 April 2011 Outbreak. Preprint for the Special Symposium on the Tornado Disasters of 2011, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, January 25, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana. Extended Abstract

    Van Cooten, Suzanne, and Coauthors, 2011: The CI-FLOW Project: A System for Total Water Level Prediction from the Summit to the Sea. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 14271442. Extended Abstract

    Hartfield, G.I., 2011: A Multiple Source Approach to Operational Lightning Prediction. Preprint 5th Conference on the Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, January 22-27, 2011, Atlanta, Georgia. Extended Abstract

    Ellis R., and Businger S., 2010: Helical Circulations in the Typhoon Boundary Layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, 13 pp. Abstract

    Smith, B.L., S.E. Yuter, P.J. Neiman, and D.E. Kingsmill, 2010: Water Vapor Fluxes and Orographic Precipitation over Northern California Associated with a Landfalling Atmospheric River. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 74–100. Abstract

    Yuter, S. E., D. A. Stark, M. T. Bryant, B. A. Colle, L. B. Perry, J. Blaes, J. Wolfe, and G. Peters, 2008: Forecasting and characterization of mixed precipitation events using the MicroRainRadar. Abstracts, Fifth European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology. June 2008, Helsinki, Finland. Preprint

    Locklear, C.B., 2008: A Severe Weather Climatology for the Raleigh, NC, County Warning Area. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS ER-101. 24 pp.

    Schneider, D., and S. Sharp, 2007: Radar Signatures of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes in Central North Carolina. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 278–286. Abstract

    Brennan, M.J., K. Keeter, A.J. Riordan, and G.M. Lackmann, 2005: Expanding Horizons with an NWS Internship Course. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1407–1409. Abstract

    Bailey, C.M., G. Hartfield, G.M. Lackmann, K. Keeter, and S. Sharp, 2003: An Objective Climatology, Classification Scheme, and Assessment of Sensible Weather Impacts for Appalachian Cold-Air Damming. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 641–661. Abstract

    Vincent, Brandon R., Lawrence D. Carey, Douglas Schneider, Kermit Keeter and Rod Gonski, 2003: Using WSR-88D Reflectivity Data for the Prediction of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning: A Central North Carolina Study. National Weather Digest, 27, 35–44.

    Lackmann, G.M., K. Keeter, L.G. Lee, and M.B. Ek, 2002: Model Representation of Freezing and Melting Precipitation: Implications for Winter Weather Forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1016–1033. Abstract

    Hoium, D.K., A.J. Riordan, J. Monahan, and K.K. Keeter, 1997: Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Warnings at Raleigh, North Carolina. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2559–2575. Abstract

    Pietrafesa, L.J., L. Xie, J. Morrison, G.S. Janowitz, J. Pelissier, K. Keeter, R.A. Neuherz, 1997: Numerical modeling and computer visualization of the Storm surge in and around the Croatan-Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary system Produced by Hurricane Emily of August 1993. Mausam, 4, 567-578.

    Moneypenny, M.M., 1996: Tornadogensis and Widespread Wind Damage from a Low-Topped Squall Line. Eastern Region WSR-88D Operations Note. NWS ER-6. 17 pp.

    Cione, J.J., S. Raman, L.J. Pietrafesa, X. Li, R.A. Neuherz and K. Keeter, 1996: The Development and Operational Implementation of the Atlantic Surface Cyclone Intensification Index (ASCII). Journal Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 89, 211–224.

    Gurka, J.J., E.P. Auciello, A.F. Gigi, J.S. Waldstreicher, K.K. Keeter, S. Businger, and L.G. Lee, 1995: Winter Weather Forecasting throughout the Eastern United States. Part II: An Operational Perspective of Cyclogenesis. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 21–41. Abstract

    Keeter, K.K., S. Businger, L.G. Lee, and J.S. Waldstreicher, 1995: Winter Weather Forecasting throughout the Eastern United States. Part III: The Effects of Topography and the Variability of Winter Weather in the Carolinas and Virginia. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 42–60. Abstract

    Numerical Simulation Studies of the Mesoscale Environment Conducive to the Raleigh Tornado, 1995: Numerical Simulation Studies of the Mesoscale Environment Conducive to the Raleigh Tornado. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS ER-90. 20 pp.

    Keeter, K.K., and J.W. Cline, 1991: The Objective Use of Observed and Forecast Thickness Values to Predict Precipitation Type in North Carolina. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 456–469. Abstract

    Lee, L.G., R.F. Gonski, E.P. Auciello, J.R. Poirier, R.A. Marine, S. Businger, K.D. Lapenta, R.W. Kelly, and T.A. Niziol, 1989: Summary of the Second National Winter Weather Workshop. Wea. Forecasting, 4, 264–270. Abstract

    Green, Robert P., and Kermit K. Keeter, 1981: Forecasting the Predominance of Frozen Precipitation: An Alternative for the Classification of Mixed Precipitation Events and the Verification of Precipitation Type. National Weather Digest, 6, 17-20.


    References

    Waldstreicher, J.S., 2005: Assessing the Impact of Collaborative Research Projects on NWS Warning Performance. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 193–203.








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    Raleigh Forecast Office
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    Page Last Modified: 20 November 2013 18:24:53 UTC


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